Issue Vol. 9, No. 2 / April 2013

TUniversalist-Relativist Cultural Ethics, China’s On-Line Communities, and the Global Internet
Author(s): Jonathan Liljeblad
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Recent literature describes the rise of Chinese internet cultures with norms of political discourse different from ones typically associated with Chinese state and society. These studies of Chinese on-line communities pose challenges for prevailing internet scholarship in international relations. This paper follows literature that argues such incongruity is due to a theoretical framework employed by the existing international relations scholarship that uses conceptions of unitary states and societies, and that the behavior of Chinese netizens may be better addressed by an alternative theoretical approach that describes on-line communities as cultures. The paper is an epistemological argument for the relevancy of the universalist-relativist ethics discourse as a culture-based approach to study the internet. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 1-10]
Chinese Martial Arts Films and China’s Soft Power in Singapore
Author(s): Christabelle He Shimin
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Does everyone in Singapore love kung fu fighting? According to Carl Douglas, everyone in America did, when he sang “Kung Fu Fighting” in 1974 during the peak of America’s fascination with kung fu movies. Many scholars have studied the effects of Chinese martial arts films on the American society while others have argued that American films were a part of America’s soft power strategies during its rise as a superpower. Few have explored the impact of Chinese martial arts films in the Asian region. Today, amidst China’s rise in the global order, Chinese films have grown in popularity, and “soft power” has also entered China’s bureaucratic speeches as the country seeks to reassure others of its “peaceful rise”. This paper has explored the view of Singaporean audiences towards the effectiveness of Chinese martial arts films in making traditional Chinese culture attractive and the potential of Chinese filmic power in helping to enhance China’s soft power. Evidence has suggested that Chinese martial arts films are indeed, valuable soft power resources, and are a promising way through which China can continue its outreach in Asia. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 11-22]
Frame Flow between State and Market: Mainland Chinese Media’s Coverage Coverage of Taiwan’s Presidential Presidential Presidential Elections In 2004 And 2008 Elections In 2004 And 2008
Author(s): Ming Dai
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This research investigated the validity of the deductive frame analysis approach in studying frame development. Through a comparative analysis of major Mainland Chinese media's coverage of the Taiwan's two presidential elections, the study showed that four frames (economic, ideology, game and conflict) were consistently present tin the news coverage. Different types of the frames varied differently over time and across media type due to the interaction of policitical and market influence on the media. [China Media Research. 2013;9(2):23-35]
A Study of News Coverage and Production of Global Warming and Climate Change Issues in Taiwanese Mainstream Newspapers
Author(s): Meihua Lee and Laichi Chen
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This study reports ona content analysis of news coverage of global warming and climate change by four leading Taiwanese newspaper groups from 2003 to 2008andanalyzes 489 published news stories and articles selected from newspaper online databases. In-depth interviews based on the results of content analysis are conducted with journalists and editors of the newspapers. The current study reinforces certainfindings in previous literature and raises implications and discussionsfor future research on how the Taiwanese mass mediacover science and technology, particularlyon issues and events about global warming and climate change. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 36-45]
Distributing Taiwanese Independent Cinema via Hollywood: Lessons Learned from Cape No 7's Integrated Marketing Efforts
Author(s): Hong-Chi Shiau
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This case study focuses on how a Taiwanese local filmmaker overcame entrenched structural constraints via a partnership with Buena Vista in the distribution of Cape No 7,a Taiwanese box office miracle. The marketing efforts are divided into above-the-lineand below-the-line advertising campaigns; the former, referring to traditional mass media advertising campaign, is strategically maneuvered by Buena Vista; the later, employing various new marketing venues, is conducted by Cape No 7 in-house marketers.
A number of Hollywood distribution practices introduced into the integrated marketing campaign are analyzed. These collaborative efforts, significant to the success, were classified into three themes: first, tools such as box-office diffusion models and media planning strategies that help marketers to manage the size and schedule of theatrical releases are discussed; second, the shift in the creation of advertising messages from filmmaker-centered to audience-centered; finally, the division of above-the-lineand below-the-line marketing task assignment and hitherto marketing responsibilities were defined. Implications for revitalizing local film productions are discussed.[China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 46-58]
A Historical Interpretation of Lei Feng: Government Subsidized Role Model in the People's Republic of China
Author(s): James Alan Schnell
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This article deals with the lack of political cartoons in the People's Republic of China and how this void is filled through the character Lei Feng (a government subsidized role model). Analysis will include description of the political situation in China, the lack of political cartoons, the Chinese media, and the promotion of Lei Feng (as a form of political cartoon). The author has visited China numerous times, often as a visiting professor. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 59-63]
Special Section
Cultural Traditions and Ethical Concerns in the Age of Global Communication
Guest Editor: Jing Yin, University of Hawai'i at Hilo
The Western Media and the Falsification of Africa: Complications of Value and Evaluation
Author(s): Molefi Kete Asante
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This article concentrates on the nature of the falsification of Africa’s image by examining the reactions of Europeans and Americans as expressed in the media. First, the article establishes the grounding, meaning obviously the context, education, and philosophy which give rise to the Western view of Africa. Secondly, the article demonstrates that these views have current expressions in the way the West sees Africa. The present article contends that the inferiorization of Africa is a part of the philosophical and cultural fabric of Europeanization. It is as if the definition of the West must include a discourse on Africa as the negation. The historical interaction between Africans and Europeans during the time when Europe was in an expansive mode made up for much of the character of Africa’s image in the Western media. This article concludes that Africa must find solutions for itself (1) by reporting on events with contexts, (2) by showing crises as a part of the emergence of nationality to overcome European colonization’s political structures and ethnic arrangements, and (3) by insisting on the relevance of African philosophical values and concepts for interpretation. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 64-70]
Journalism Ethics in a Global Communication Era: The Framing Journalism Perspective
Author(s): Dennis K. Davis and Kurt Kent
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This essay proposes that both journalism and journalism education be reformed based on framing theory and research. The strategy for implementing these reforms is called framing journalism. This strategy involves integrating framing theory and research findings into day to day news production. Current news production practices are based on cultural traditions that have only a limited ability to produce balanced, accurate, and objective reports of events. News fails to provide adequate support for democratic government. Research shows that news is often structured in ways that lead to misunderstanding and low recall. Problematic frames give rise to cynicism, ignorance, and apathy. News tends to reinforce the status quo and to impede useful social changes. Political and social elites increasingly use framing theory and research to control the way journalists frame issues and events. Framing journalism would allow journalists to better understand and anticipate the consequences of their work. They could challenge elite manipulation and be proactive in educating the public about important issues and events. By working with framing researchers, journalists could identify and rectify badly framed news. Framing journalism provides an essential basis for the ethical practice of journalism in a global media era. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 71-82]
Media Control and Democratic Transition: Ongoing Threat to Press Freedom in Taiwan
Author(s): Chen-Ling Hung
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The present study applies a historic analysis to state control over media in the context of regime change in Taiwan. Cases are introduced to demonstrate how political power interrelates with the market and civil society in shaping media’s function and its implication for press freedom and democracy. Before 2000, the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) party-state was a “bureaucratic-authoritarian regime” which had overt and tight control over the society and the media. It was in the post-martial law era in the 1990s, responding to the challenges from civil society, the KMT lifted ban on newspapers and airwave allocation to allow more media operation and competition. Since 2000, a democratic transition has been achieved as the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) and the KMT took turns seizing power. However, both parties kept control media through indirect and covert strategies such as involvement in media ownership and personnel decisions, infusing governmental campaign into news, and promoting policies in favor of media capitalists. This study argues, that even with the recent bills (2006 and 2011) brought by media reform campaigns, politicians tend to maintain institutional dependence of the media in order to control media in favour of their own interests. Although its overt administrative control has been weakened in the democratizing process, the government forms alliance with media capitalists as a new mode of control that hinders freedom of speech and service to public good. Democratic consolidation in a state in transition such as Taiwan, therefore, needs to make more efforts from civil society to fight against unjust interference of both political and capital power in media. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 83-93]
Holographic Epistemology: Native Common Sense
Author(s): Manulani Aluli Meyer
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We communicate through our world view shaped within knowledge systems prioritized by the needs of people and the lessons of place. This article simplifies indigenous epistemology with the latest insight of post-quantum sciences. Holographic principles and practices are used to design a (k)new understanding of the philosophy of knowledge inclusive of all three aspects of nature: physical, mental, and spiritual. Holographic epistemology details the simultaneity of this trilogy without collapsing knowledge into dogma or well-intentioned patterns of philosophy that instead oppress, dismiss and make uniform. Indigenous epistemology combining with quantum clarity creates a new-old-wisdom helping simplify complexity into purpose and common sense once again so observable knowledge can be valued once more. We are moving from text into context through consciousness and the crisp qualities found in active engagement. Ulu ka le’ale’a. Let joy rise! [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 94-101]
Communication, Culture, and Ethics: Implications for Symbol-Users and the Golden Rule
Author(s): Bradford 'J' Hall
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This article explores the intersection between communication, culture, and ethics. It does this through considering implications associated with the ideas that humans are symbol-using animals and that both communication and culture are systems of symbols. Based on the inherent nature of symbols, a series of implications for all symbol users, regardless of their distinctive communication practices and cultures, are identified. The concept of ethics, as it relates to these implications is then examined and a particular ethic, known as the Golden Rule, is examined in terms of examples raised earlier in the article. The article concludes with items to consider as we attempt to communicate ethically in a multicultural world. [China Media Research. 2013; 9(2): 102-110]
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